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Vocabulary: Common Verbs

Common Verbs from the Basic Paradigms

The following is a list of approximately 200 of the most commonly used verbs. They are all restricted to the 3-lettered basic paradigms. The words are divided into groups of twenty, after each of which is a short translation exercise designed to activate the new vocabulary. To complete the exercises, you may use any resource. A dictionary will be most helpful in determining which particles will follow a particular verb as well as the different shades of meaning of each verb.

 

This vocabulary list is not meant to be gone through all at once. Readers are strongly encouraged to pace themselves. The recommended time frame for completing this tutorial is between one and three months. Do one section at a time and allow time for the vocabulary to sink in.

 


 

Arabic

English

أتى يأتي

to come

أخَذ يأخُذ

to take

أكَل يأكُل

to eat

أمَر يأمُر

to command

بحَث يبحَث

to (re)search

بدَأ يبدَأ

to begin

بدَل يبدُل

to replace

برَز يبرُز

to emerge

بسَط يبسُط

to spread (something)

بعَث يبعَث

to dispatch

بقِي يبقى

to remain

بكى يبكي

to cry

بلَغ يبلُغ

to reach

بنى يبتي

to build

بان يبين

to become clear

تبِع يتبَع

to follow

ترَك يترُك

to leave/abandon

تمّ يتِمّ

to complete

تاب يتوب

to repent

ثبَت يثبُت

to be firmly established

 

Exercise: translate the following into Arabic

         she began to eat solid foods when she reached the age of one

         he sent many men to build it before it was finally complete

         stay with me, otherwise I will just keep following you

         I was ordered to take these

         donít cry over me

         it is abandoned

 


 

Arabic

English

جرَح يجرَح

to wound

جرى يجري

to flow (literally or abstractly)

جعَل يجعَل

to make (something into something)

جلَس يجلِس

to sit

جاز يجوز

to be permissible

جاء يجيء

to come

حسَب يحسُب

to calculate

حصَل يحصُل

to acquire (transitive and intransitive)

حضَر يحضُر

to be present

حفِظ يحفَظ

to protect; to memorize

حكَم يحكُم

to pass judgement

حمَل يحمِل

to carry

حيّ يحيى

to be alive

ختَم يختِم

to seal; to conclude/finish

خدَم يخدِم

to serve

خرَج يخرُج

to exit

خرَق يخرِق

to tear

خزَن يخزُن

to store

خصّ يخُصّ

to single out/distinguish

خطِأ يخطَأ

to be in error/make a mistake

 

Exercise: translate the following into Arabic

         am I allowed to sit here?

         my clothes are ripped

         Iíve been carrying this since I got here

         she hurt herself near the exit

 


 

Arabic

English

خفِي يخفى

to be concealed

خلَص يخلُص

to be pure

خلَق يخلُق

to create

خلا يخلو

to be empty

خان يخون

to betray

خال يخال

to imagine

دخَل يدخُل

to enter

درَس يدرُس

to study

دعا يدعو

to call; to invite

دفَع يدفَع

to push away

دلّ يدُلّ

to demonstrate/indicate

دنا يدنو

to be near

دنِي يدنى

to be low

دار يدور

to revolve

دان يدين

to borrow

دكَر يدكُر

to remember; to mention

ذهَب يذهَب

to go

رأى يرى

to see; to have an opinion

ربَط يربُِط

to fasten; many other meanings

رجَع يرجِع

to return

 

Exercise: which of the above words would be the best synonym (not necessarily exact) for the following?

         to double cross

         to connect links in a chain

         to daydream

         to owe

         to reach downwards

         to repel

         to be hollow

         to show

 


 

Arabic

English

رجا يرجو

to hope; to plead; to expect

رحَل يرحَل

to set out for travel

ردَع يردَع

to keep something at bay

رزَق يرزُق

to provide (sustenance)

رشَد يرشُد

to be on the right track

رعى يرعى

to take care of / watch over

رفَع يرفَع

to lift/raise

رقِي يرقى

to ascend

ركِب يركَب

to ride; to mount/board

راق يروق

to be clear; to surpass in excellence

زال يزول

to die down

زال يزال

to stop

سأَل يسأَل

to ask

سبّ يسُبّ

to insult; to swear

سبَق يسبُِق

to precede

سفِه يسفَه

to be stupid

سقَط يسقُط

to fall

سكَن يسكُن

to dwell; to be still

سلَف يسلُف

to be over/done

سلِم يسلَم

to be safe; to be sound/correct

 

Exercise: find words from the above list that can be used in place of the following (but are not necessarily synonyms).

         to interrogate

         to elevate

         please

         to be complete

         to climb

         to be enlightened

         to push away

 


 

Arabic

English

سمِع يسمَع

to hear

ساء يسوء

to be/become bad/evil

سوِي يسوى

to be equal; to be smooth and the like

سار يسير

to travel (by night)

سال يسيل

to flow

شجُع يسجُع

to be brave/encouraged

شدّ يشِدّ

to be firm/solid/intense/violent/etc

شرِب يشرَب

to drink

شرَط يشرُِط

to stipulate; many other meanings

شرِك يشرَك

to share

شعَر يشعُر

to feel (an emotion)

شغَل يشغَل

to preoccupy (someone)

شهِد يشهَد

to witness; to testify

صبَر يصبِر

to be patient; other meanings

صحا يصحو

to regain consciousness; to wake up

صلَح يصلُح

to be proper/righteous

صنَع يصنَع

to make; other meanings

ضجّ يضِجّ

to be noisy

ضرَب يضرِب

to hit; other meanings

ضعُف يضعُف

to be weak

 

Exercise: find words from above with a meaning opposite (or contrary to) the following.

         to ignore

         to demolish

         to be greedy / to be the only one doing something

         to be strong

         to be quiet

         to be thirsty

         to go to sleep

         to be coarse

 


 

Arabic

English

ضمِن يضمَن

to guarantee/be liable

ضاع يضيع

to lose oneís way

ضاق يضيق

to be tight/narrow/etc

طرَح يطرَح

to toss; to cull

طرَق يطرُق

to knock

طعِم يطعَم

to taste

طلَب يطلُب

to look for

طلَع يطلُع

to rise (e.g. the sun); to ascend

طهَر يطهَُر

to be clean/pure

طاق يطوق

to able (to do something)

طاب يطيب

to be good/pleasant/agreeable/etc

طار يطير

to fly

ظنّ يظُنّ

to know; to assume/believe

ظهَر يظهَر

to be apparent/manifest

عبَد يعبُد

to worship

عبَر يعبُر

to traverse

عجِب يعجَب

to be amazed

عدّ يعُدّ

to count/enumerate; to consider among

عدَل يعدِل

to be fair

عذَر يعذِر

to excuse/forgive

 

Exercise: write a short sentence in Arabic on each of the following topics using at least one of the above words in each sentence; this exercise may be skipped by beginners

         the current economic situation

         whether universities should be private or state-run

         how a servant can gain a close relationship with his lord

         the effective of poorly chosen friends

 


 

Arabic

English

عرَف يعرِف

to know/recognize

عطِش يعطَش

to be thirsty

عقَد يعقِد

to tie/knot/lock/etc; other meanings

علِق يعلَق

to hang; to be hung; to cling

علِم يعلَم

to know

عمِل يعمَل

to do/work

عاد يعود

to return

عاق يعوق

to hinder

غرّ يغُرّ

to mislead

غضِب يغضَب

to become angry

غفَر يغفِر

to forgive

غلَب يغلِب

to overpower/conquer

غلَق يغلِق

to lock; to close

غاب يغيب

to disappear

فتَح يفتَح

to open

فرّ يفِرّ

to flee

فرَق يفرُق

to separate/divide

فشِل يفشَل

to lose heart; to fail

فصَل يفصِل

to detach

فضَل يفضُل

to be better

 

Exercise: how can the following meanings be achieved (theoretically at least) by using the above words in advanced verb paradigms?

         to make someone angry

         to be preferable

         to be fragmented

         to introduce someone to someone else

         to commence/open a symposium

         to recognize each other

 


 

Arabic

English

فقَد يفقُد

to lose something

فات يفوت

to slip away

فاض يفيض

to overflow

قبَض يقبِض

to seize

قبِل يقبَل

to accept

قتَل يقتُل

to kill

قدَر يقدِر

to possess ability

قدِم يقدَم

to arrive

قرَأ يقرَأ

to read

قسَم يقسِم

to categorize

قصَد يقصِد

to make something a goal/aim/intention

قضى يقضي

to execute/perfume

قطَع يقطَع

to cut

قعَد يقعُد

to sit

قلَب يقلِب

to turn/flip/etc

قال يقول

to say

قام يقوم

to stand

كتَب يكتُب

to write; to ordain

كتَم يكتُم

to hide/conceal

كذَب يكذِب

to lie

 

Exercise: how can the following meanings be achieved (theoretically at least) by using the above words in advanced verb paradigms?

         to inundate something

         to become disconnected

         to deem someone a liar

         to want to accept someone (be a receptionist)

         to boycott

 


 

Arabic

English

كرِه يكرَه

to dislike

كسَر يكسِر

to break

كشَف يكشِف

to remove a covering

كاد يكيد

to deceive/dupe

لبِس يلبَس

to wear

لحِق يلحَق

to catch up; to be joint to

لزِم يلزَم

to be necessary; to adhere to

لعِب يلعَب

to play

مدّ يمُدّ

to extend/be long

مرّ يمُرّ

to pass by

مسّ يمَسّ

to touch

مضى يمضي

for something to pass

مطَر يمطُر

to rain

ملأ يملأ

to fill up

ملَك يملِك

to take/have possession / to own

منَع يمنَع

to prevent

نجَح ينجَح

to end up successful

نزَل ينزِل

to descend

نسِي ينسى

to forget

نشَأ ينشَأ

to grow

 

Exercise: how can the following derived nouns be formed given the above verbs and meanings?

         filled up

         the past

         playground

         most successful woman

         very long and spread out

         one who uncovers (by profession)

         (theoretically) something used for breaking

 


 

Arabic

English

نصَح ينصَح

to advise

نصَر ينصُر

to help

نضِج ينضَج

to become mature

نظَر ينظُر

to look

نفَع ينفَع

to benefit

نقَل ينقُل

to move/relocate (something)

نهى ينهي

to forbid

نام ينوم

to sleep

نوى ينوي

to intend

هدا يهدي

to guide

هلَك يهلِك

to perish; to be annihilated

وجَب يجِب

to be necessary

وجَد يجِد

to find (not to look for)

وصَل يصِل

to arrive; to combine/link; other meanings

وضَع يضَع

to put

وقَع يقَع

to fall; to occur

وقَف يقِف

to stop

ولَد يلِد

to give birth (even for masculine)

 

Exercise: which ones from the above verbs do you think are transitive based on their meanings?

 



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