What is this Tutorial About?
Introduction to Logic introduced the concepts of تصور (concept) and تصديق (assent) and revealed that the science of Logic is concerned with definitions with respect to concepts and with proofs with respect to assent. Indication then outlined the role that speech plays in indicating on the concepts and assents in the mind.
We now focus on concepts and later we will focus on assents. In this focus, we need to briefly study the speech that indicates on concepts in the mind, and subsequently the concepts themselves in order to study definitions. This tutorial deals with the speech that indicates on concepts.
Simple Speech is Categorized in Another Way:
Based on the Multiplicity of its Meanings
Simple speech will either have one meaning or more than one meaning. For example, the word “stomach” has only one meaning in the English language, but the word “fork” may refer to cutlery or to divisions, and the word “canon” may refer to a weapon or to law. The former is called متوحد المعنى (single meaning) and the latter is termed متكثر المعنى (multiple meanings).
The متوحد المعنى is divided into categories based on its application. This is in contrast to what grammarians know as definiteness. So if the مفرد refers to a single specific entity, then it is known as جزئي جقيقي (definite). And if that is not the case, then it is known asكلي (indefinite). For example, “my stomach” is single in meaning and definite, whereas just “stomach” is single in meaning but indefinite.
Now, if the مفرد is a كلي (indefinite), that necessarily means that it refers to several individuals. If its application is equal across all of the individuals, then it is termed كلي متواطي (isometric). For example, the word “stomach” applies just as well to Zaid’s stomach, to Omar’s stomach, to a lion’s stomach, and so on – they are all equally stomach. But if its application is not equal across all individuals, then it is termed كلي مشكك (anisometric). For example, the word “white” does not apply equally between the whiteness of snow and that of an elephant’s tusk; snow is whiter.
Now the متكثر المعنى is divided into two categories. If the various meanings of speech were a result of separate coinage processes and one meaning did not come about due to a relationship with another, then it is called كلي مشترك. And if one of the meanings was a result of a relationship with another meaning, then it is termed كلي غير مشترك.
An example of the كلي مشترك is the word “canon” which was coined once to refer to the weapon and again, separately, to refer to laws. This should not be confused with the مفرد that has a single meaning which applies to its individuals anisometrically (the كلي مشكك). That type of speech is one in which the meaning is one but it applies to various entities, as the adjective “white” has only one meaning but applies to anything of that colour. This type of speech, on the other hand, is one in which the meaning is multiple to begin with, as the word “canon” refers to both a weapon and to law.
An example of the كلي غير مشترك is the word “retire” which means to withdraw as well as to permanently cease employment. And another example is the word “tax” which once meant to valuate but now refers to gubernatorial levies on income etc.
Both examples above are ones in which one meaning exists due to a relationship with another meaning, and it was not the result of a separate coinage process. The example of “retire” is one where the original meaning has fallen out of common usage and the related meaning has taken over; if the word is used in the old sense then it is termed حقيقة (literal) and if it is used in the new sense then it is termed مجاز (figurative). And “tax” is an example where the earlier meaning has completely fallen out of usage altogether; this type is termed منقول (transferred).
|كلي غير مشترك|
(a single coinage but separate usages)
(literal / figurative)